2 edition of Uncertainty in psychophysics: evidence for the entropy theory of perception. found in the catalog.
Uncertainty in psychophysics: evidence for the entropy theory of perception.
Iftikhar R.* Nizami
Written in English
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||210|
Psychophysics, a discipline of psychology, aims to describe the relationship between physical quantities and the perception of these quantities. One of the classical laws of psychophysics, called "Weber's law", states that the minimum difference (difference threshold: D f) necessary for discriminating between two stimuli increases as a. Algorithmic Statistics Paul Vitanyi CWI and University of Amsterdam [email protected] While Kolmogorov complexity is the accepted absolute measure of information content of an individual finite object, a similarly absolute notion is needed for the relation between an individual data sample and an individual model summarizing the information in the data, for example, a finite .
Directing these results back to CLT, what can be said is that entropy tracks abstraction—and therefore construal level—in images in a reliable way. High-construal images, in virtue of exhibiting law-like regularities, are predictable and have low entropy; conversely, low-construal images frustrate schematic perception and have high : James Carney. 1 Introduction. Exactly years ago Wertheimer () published his paper on phi motion—perception of pure motion, without object motion—which many consider to be the beginning of Gestalt psychology as an important school of thought. The present status of Gestalt psychology is ambiguous. On the one hand, many psychologists believe that the Gestalt Cited by:
ambiguous situations. It is most widely applied in psychophysics—the domain of study that investigates the relation-ship between a physical stimulus and its subjective or psychological effect—but the theory has implications about how any type of decision under uncertainty . In , W. E. Hick published an article in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, “On the rate of gain of information.”It played a seminal role in the cognitive revolution and established one of the few widely acknowledged laws in psychology, relating choice reaction time to the number of stimulus–response alternatives (or amount of uncertainty) in a by:
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ask whether a first-order-cybernetics concept, Shannon's Information Theory, actually allows a far-reaching mathematics of Author: Lance Nizami.
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Entropy, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Physics Institute, Universidade Federal Fluminense, NiteroiBrazil. Physics (from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), romanized: physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis 'nature') is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force.
Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand. Theories of Visual Perception 3rd Edition provides clear critical accounts of several of the major approaches to the challenge of explaining how we see the world.
It explains why approaches to theories of visual perception differ so widely and places each theory into its historical and philosophical context. AUDITORY PSYCHOPHYSICS AND PERCEPTION AUDITORY PSYCHOPHYSICS AND PERCEPTION Hirsh, Ira J.
Fechnerâ s so-called inner and outer psychophysics are today represented in audition by (a) the relations between auditory behavior and correlated physiological observations, mostly in the cochlea and auditory nerve, and (b).
This paper presents, first, a formal exploration of the relationships between information (statistically defined), statistical hypothesis testing, the use of hypothesis testing in reverse as an investigative tool, channel capacity in a communication system, uncertainty, the concept of entropy in thermodynamics, and Bayes’ theorem.
This exercise brings out the close Cited by: 9. Entropy is defined in classical thermodynamics in terms of macroscopic measurements, while in information theoryis a measure of the uncertainty in a random variable. In classical thermodynamics, entropy makes no reference to any probability distribution, which is central to the definition of entropy in information by: 1.
4 Mind in Psychophysics 1. Author can perceive only when it is uncertain and that the level of uncertainty can be measured by Shannon's measure of uncertainty or entropy: H = -Zp,/n pi, where p, is the probability of stimulus i occurring.
The magical number 7k2: Making a 'bit' of sense. Perception & Psychophysics, 29, Nowich, K Cited by: 9. In Western music, dissonance is the quality of sounds that seems unstable and has an aural need to resolve to a stable consonance.
Both consonance and dissonance are words applied to harmony, chords, and intervals and, by extension, to melody, tonality, and even rhythm and gh there are physical and neurological facts important to understanding the idea. In information theory entropy is a measure of how much information one needs to resolve the uncertainty in a given message.
Essentially it is a measure of uncertainty. Using the concept entropy it was possible to show how entropy changes depending on the situation. (Johnson, ) Perception, & Psychophysics, 72 (8).
doi: 10 File Size: KB. Self-Locating Uncertainty (originally a physics term but we also use it for describing a phenomenal character of experience; ref: 1, 2): The uncertainty that one has about who and where one is.
This is relevant in light of states of consciousness that are common on high-dose psychedelics, mental illnesses, and meditation, where the information. The main body reviews a comprehensive array of noteworthy data and theories.
Psychophysics emphasizes the need for adequate theoretical frameworks to underpin scales derived from magnitude estimation and from different numeric rating processes as.
The first half of the book (chapters ) surveys material needed to understand and appreciate the equation F = kH. This includes a review of empirical laws in psychophysics, a brief description of information theory, and selected surveys of applications of information theory in.
Perception and psychophysics of surface shape. What image information supports perception of surface shape. This question may be answered by psychophysical experiments, by evaluating the resolution, uncertainty, and invariance of human discriminations.
The following psychophysical results converge with analyses of image structure to indicate Cited by: Perception & Psychophysics() Simultaneous determination of composition and thickness of thin films by x-ray microanalysis at kV and Monte Carlo simulation.
UltramicroscopyCited by: The Theory of Selective Information and Some of Its Behavioral Applications [l 11 to the source, and between the channel and the destination a receiver is introduced to "match" the channel to the destination. In other words, the transmitter encodes the message for the channel and the receiver decodes it.
We used psychometric functions to estimate the joint entropy for space discrimination and spatial frequency discrimination.
Space discrimination was taken as discrimination of spatial extent. Seven subjects were tested. Gábor functions comprising unidimensionalsinusoidal gratings (, 2, and 10 cpd) and bidimensionalGaussian envelopes (1°) were used as reference by: 1.
To understand visual consciousness, we must understand how the brain represents ensembles of objects at many levels of perceptual analysis. Ensemble perception refers to the visual system's ability to extract summary statistical information from groups of similar objects—often in a brief glance.
It defines foundational limits on cognition, memory, and behavior. In this review, we. Abstract. The purpose of this chapter is to explain our perception of time by using metaphorical thinking and to show how we understand the concept of future within the framework of time, complexity and uncertainty.
Strategies are built for future actions and understanding the nature and the content of future becomes : Ettore Bolisani, Constantin Bratianu. Introduction Edit.
Discoveries in physics find applications throughout the other natural sciences as they regard the basic constituents of the Universe.
Some of the phenomena studied in physics, such as the phenomenon of conservation of energy, are common to all material systems. These are often referred to as laws ofsuch as superconductivity, stem from these. Auditory Expectation: The Information Dynamics of Music Perception and Cognition probabilistic modeling.
We summarize a range of evidence for this approach, from psychology, neuroscience, musicology, linguistics, and creativity studies, and argue that simulating expectation is an important part of understanding a broad range of human Cited by: This article applies the free energy principle to the hard problem of consciousness.
After clarifying some philosophical issues concerning functionalism, it identifies the elemental form of consciousness as affect and locates its physiological mechanism (an extended form of homeostasis) in the upper brainstem.
This mechanism is then formalized in terms of free Cited by: